Wilcha and Todaro Bib

The West Ward Neighborhood Partnership. (2015). Community Gardens. Retrieved June 8, 2015, from http://wwnp.caclv.org/pages/community-gardens.php

As a program of the Community Action Committee of the Lehigh Valley Inc., the West Ward Neighborhood Partnership lists its mission throughout the given website. The tone is very positive about the volunteers and resources working together to promote “neighborhood enhancement and economic development” in a diverse section of the city. While the WWNP’s programs and findings are important to understanding the economic and social needs of the West Ward, the site also provides a map to show the locations of several community gardens. The map allows users to scroll over points and read brief descriptions as well.

Buy Fresh Buy Local of the Greater Lehigh Valley. (2015). 2015 – 2017 Local Foods Guide. Easton, PA: Author.

The latest Local Foods Guide is an amalgamation of important local information on CSAs, farmers’ markets, and broader food institutions in the greater Lehigh Valley. In an effort to educate consumers and promote local food providers, the Local Foods Guide lists farmers and growers (along with what they grow, where they are located, etc.), farmers’ markets (locations, days and times, products), retail stores and restaurants (with which local growers’ products they have), and institutions that utilize local farms and CSAs. There are other additional resources, like the harvest calendar which shows when certain vegetables and fruits reach their peak in the season.

Prior, L., & guest authors (2013). Assessment Report: Lehigh Valley Local Food Economy. Easton, PA: Buy Fresh Buy Local of the Greater Lehigh Valley. Retrieved June 7, 2015, from http://buylocalgreaterlehighvalley.org/images/stories/bfbl/pdf/assessment%20report%20lv%20food%20economy%20final.pdf

Buy Fresh Buy Local put out another crucial document to understanding the limitations on the local food economy and resources through the assessment report. Prior writes that the greatest issue facing the local food economy is the loss of farmland, as the Lehigh Valley’s farmland has decreased by 53% since 1930 (1). The document then discusses the diverse populations in the LV, along with difficulties facing single mothers with young children and racial minorities. Food production, infrastructure, waste, policy and implications of climate change are also broken down. Specifically, the report brings up the intersectionality of many food-related issues by analyzing “food access.” While the percentage of SNAP benefits spent at farmers’ markets is quite low according to the report, local farms can play a role in providing affordable, fresh, healthy produce (42). Much of the Farmers’ Market Nutrition Program vouchers issued in the LV were not redeemed. A lot of maps are then provided to detail bus routes, access to vehicles, and nearby grocery stores in food deserts; much of this information came from the Food Access Research Atlas.

Buy Fresh Buy Local of the Greater Lehigh Valley. (2013). Fresh Food Access Plan. Easton, PA: Author. Retrieved June 7, 2015, from http://buylocalgreaterlehighvalley.org/wp-content/uploads/pdfs/Fresh-Food-Access-Plan.pdf

A short and succinct document, the Fresh Food Access Plan was written up after forums had ranked which food issues were most important for the Lehigh Valley. The broad topic of food in the LV was broken down into categories: economy, production, infrastructure, waste, climate change, access, and healthy eating. Each category has a number of specific goals to reach, followed by a short strategy/policy that could help obtain them. Surveys conducted to gauge the magnitude of each topic concluded that residents found it important to “Promote the consumption of fresh, locally grown foods” and “Preserve rural agricultural land.” When asked to order the topics of Land, Farmers & Sustainable Production, Infrastructure, and Consumers and Healthy Retail, they put “Land” first and Consumers and Healthy Retail second (3).

Easton Environmental Advisory Council & Mapping Urban Ecology course (Dr. Bonnie Winfield) of Lafayette College. (2009). Green Map of the City of Easton, Pennsylvania. Easton, PA: Author. Retrieved from http://www.opengreenmap.org/greenmap/green-map-city-easton-pennsylvania

This collaborative project was a digital humanities project itself, albeit without the title. The Green Map shows drop down categories that include Sustainable Living (which encompasses Green Economy, Technology and Design, Mobility, and Hazards), Nature (Land & Water, Flora, Fauna, and Outdoor Activities), and Culture and Society (Cultural Character, Eco-information, Justice and Activism, and Public Works). There are even subcategories within the subcategories. By publicizing these “green” locations through the interactive map, the goal was to educate the public about environmental resources in the area. One of the main contributors, Charles Elliott, also stated that the project was printed and handed out as well.

Easton Hunger Coalition. (2015). Easton Food Resources Map. Easton, PA: Author. Retrieved from http://www.eastonhungercoalition.org/food-resources-map—easton.html

The Easton Food Resources Map also has digital humanities flair, as it is another interactive map – although this one only allows users to poke around the map and click on pins for more information about the meal centers and pantries. Green stars indicate the meal centers, while red labels mark the pantries. The project is straightforward, and is simplistic in scope.

Cornell Cooperative Extension of Tompkins County. (2008). Building Community Health, Farm Viability, and Food Equity through Community Supported Agriculture. Ithaca, NY: Author. Retrieved June 9, 2015, from http://mysare.sare.org/mySARE/ProjectReport.aspx?do=viewRept&pn=CNE07-020&y=2008&t=1

This report tracks the expansion of local CSA membership with the incorporation of subsidized shares for low-income families in Ithaca, NY. Very few food stamp users went to the local food market since there was a perception that the food was too expensive and they could not redeem their SNAP benefits (when they in fact could). The goal of the project was to connect community-based organizations and low-income families with CSAs, without the farms having to lower their prices (and therefore their incomes). This would thus engage and expose more people to farms and fresh food, enhancing their diets significantly.

Introduction to Engineering and Public Policy at Lafayette College & Professor Ben Cohen. (2011). The Governance of Technology: Food Deserts. Easton, PA: Author. Retrieved from http://sites.lafayette.edu/egrs251-fa11-fooddeserts/

Professor Cohen’s website hosts an ArcGIS project of his class’s own design, which maps out Canton regions in Easton, convenience stores, and food markets/grocery stores. The location pins all have short descriptions when clicked that state the sort of produce they can provide. In addition, the site gives the class’s analysis of whether Easton is facing a food desert situation: “…we hypothesize that there is a moderate food desert situation in urban Easton areas.” The website does give some interesting contrasting arguments. 73 West Ward residents were polled and the results stated that most people shop at local supermarket chains, access is not an issue, and that there are enough food stores in the community. However, the cost of healthy eating is still a deterrent in these locations.

United States Department of Agriculture. (2015). Food Access Research Atlas. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/food-access-research-atlas/go-to-the-atlas.aspx 

Because its scope is narrowed yet the map is still broad, users may hone in on certain areas to see how closely related low income, vehicle access, and supermarket access are. The site is easy to use, allowing you to print off maps (much like Social Explorer does) or search a specific location, and the way the information is presented is both visually appealing and comprehensible (each statistical layer lets you scroll over it to see their definition and parameters). Luckily, the site also includes an “Original Food Desert Measure” tab: interestingly, one specific part of Easton is mapped out, despite the city having a lot of low income and low vehicle access in more locations. The site is simple, focused on its topic, and easy to use (even providing bars to change opacity so that information can be viewed more easily). The information is downloadable, there are contacts available, and the information was last updated only three months ago – making the data extremely valuable.

USDA Economic Research Service. (2015). Food Environment Atlas. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/food-environment-atlas/go-to-the-atlas.aspx 

The Food Environment Atlas mimics the Food Access Research Atlas, yet includes much more data about grocery stores and details. Access and proximity to grocery stores, store availability, restaurant availability and expenditure, food assistance, state food insecurity, food prices and taxes, local foods, health and physical activity, and socioeconomic characteristics are all included.

United States Department of Environmental Protection. (2015). MyEnvironment. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from: http://www.epa.gov/myenv/myenview2.html?minx=-75.41428&miny=40.67751&maxx=-75.03319&maxy=40.81017&ve=11,40.74368,-75.22379&pSearch=18040,%20PA

This site provides an incredible amount of information in a readily accessible format. One enters a zip code into the sites search box and information on air quality in your zip appears, along with information on water quality in local rivers and streams, what types of energy sources are used, what types of toxic and carcinogenic materials are present, including Point source, Non-point source, Onroad, Nonroad, Background, and Secondary sources of pollutants. Much of this information is aggregated on a zoom-able map that will allow us to explore what individual neighborhoods are being affected by toxic chemicals, for example.

In person survey work at the Easton Farmers’ Market. Not sure how to cite this?

We plan on carrying out in person survey work at the Easton Farmers’ Market. We’ll be gathering survey responses from individuals shopping at the market. We can ask individuals any number of questions that will aid our project. Some example questions could be: how often do you shop at the farmers market? How often do you purchase fresh produce and from where? Do you know what ‘organic’ means? Do you know what a GMO is? etc. This could be extremely helpful in determining Easton residents knowledge of where fresh local food can be procured, and their knowledge of the food system in general.

United States Department of Environmental Protection. (2015). EJView. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from: http://epamap14.epa.gov/ejmap/ejmap.aspx?wherestr=Easton%2C%20PA

The EPA Environmental Justice (EJ) View tool is another zoomable map that has a variety of layers that will seemingly be extraordinarily helpful in the creation of our app. Using this tool we’ll be able to see the spatial distribution of: EJ Grants, CARE Grants, Brownfields Grants, Hazardous waste (RCRAInfo), Air emissions (AFS), Water dischargers (PCS/ICIS), Toxic releases (TRI), Superfund (CERCLIS), Brownfields (ACRES), USGS water monitors (NWIS), EPA water monitors (STORET), Schools, Hospitals, Worship Places, Ozone 8-hr (1997 standard), Lead (2008 standard), PM2.5 Annual (1997 standard), PM2.5 24-hr (2006 standard), Cancer and Noncancer Risk (2005), Infant Mortality Rate (2004), Low Birth Weight Rate (2004), Population Density 2010, Minority (%) 2010, Renter (%) 2010, and much, much more. This will allow us to view the direct relationship between race, class, and the unequal distribution of environmental burdens and benefits.

United States Department of Environmental Protection. (2015). NEPAssist. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from: http://nepassisttool.epa.gov/nepassist/nepamap.aspx?action=searchloc&wherestr=18040

This tool, designed by the EPA, is yet ANOTHER zoomable, layered map. It does cover a few of the other layers mentioned in the last citation, but also has other, more specific and environmentally related layers including: Water Features, Water Monitoring Stations, Water Features, FEMA Flood Zones, Land Cover distribution, Critical Habitat areas, Soil Type, NWI Wetlands. The tool also has in depth demographic tools including: Per Capita Income, Below Poverty Percentage, <12g Education, HS Diploma Only, College Degree, Age pre <18, Homes pre-1950, % Speak English Well, %Female, etc.

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