Lee, Caroline W. 2015. Do-it-Yourself Democracy: The Rise of the Public Engagement Industry. Oxford University Press.

Lee, Caroline W., Michael McQuarrie, and Edward T. Walker, eds. 2015. Democratizing Inequalities: Dilemmas of the New Public Participation. NYU Press.

Research Articles and Book Chapters

Lee, Caroline W. 2020. “Who is Community Engagement For? The Endless Loop of Democratic Transparency.” American Behavioral Scientist 64(11):1565-1587.

Caroline W. Lee. 2019. “21st Century Town Hall Meetings in the 1990s and 2000s: Deliberative Demonstrations and the Commodification of Political Authenticity in an Era of Austerity.” Journal of Public Deliberation: 15(2): Article 2.

Originally published in translation in 2016 as: “Les 21st Century Town Meetings dans les Annees 1990 et 2000: Assemblees Deliberantes et Marchandisation de L’authenticite Politique dans une Epoque d’Austerite.” Traduction: Laurent Vannini. Participations 14(2): 51-82.

Laurence Bherer and Caroline W. Lee. 2019. “Consultants: The Emerging Participation Industry.” In The Handbook of Democratic Innovation and Governance, edited by Stephen Elstub and Oliver Escobar. Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.

Lee, Caroline W. 2017. “Public Participation Professionals in the U.S.: Confronting Challenges of Equity and Empowerment.” Pp. 65-86 in The Professionalization of Public Participation, edited by Laurence Bherer, Mario Gauthier, and Louis Simard. New York: Routledge.

Lee, Caroline W. 2016. “The Arts and Crafts of Participatory Reforms: How Can Socially Engaged Art and Public Deliberation Inform Each Other?Field 3(Spring).

Lee, Caroline W. 2015. “Participatory Practices in Organizations.” Sociology Compass 9: 272-288.

From Democratizing Inequalities:

Walker, Edward T., Michael McQuarrie, and Caroline W. Lee. 2015. “Rising Participation and Declining Democracy.” Pp. 3-23.

Lee, Caroline W., Kelly McNulty (Lafayette ’11) and Sarah Shaffer (Lafayette ’11). 2015. “Civic-izing Markets: Selling Social Profits in Public Deliberation.” Pp. 27-45.

Lee, Caroline W., Michael McQuarrie, and Edward Walker. 2015. “Realizing the Promise of Public Participation in an Age of Inequality.” Pp. 247-250.

Lee, Caroline W. 2014. “Accounting for Diversity in Collaborative Governance: An Institutional Approach to Empowerment Reforms.” Pp. 127-158 in Varieties of Civic Innovation: Deliberative, Collaborative, Network, and Narrative Approaches, edited by Carmen Sirianni and Jennifer Girouard. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press.

Lee, Caroline W. 2014. “Walking the Talk: The Performance of Authenticity in Public Engagement Work.” The Sociological Quarterly 55: 493-513.

Lee, Caroline W. and Zachary Romano (Lafayette ’10). 2013. “Democracy’s New Discipline: Public Deliberation as Organizational Strategy.” Organization Studies Special Issue on “Social Movements, Civil Societies and Corporations” 34: 733-753.

Lee, Caroline W., Kelly McNulty (Lafayette ‘11) and Sarah Shaffer (Lafayette ‘11). 2013. “‘Hard Times, Hard Choices’: Marketing Retrenchment as Civic Empowerment in an Era of Neoliberal Crisis.” Socio-Economic Review 11: 81-106.

Lee, Caroline W. 2011. “Five Assumptions Academics Make About Deliberation, and Why They Deserve Rethinking.” Journal of Public Deliberation 7(1), 1-48.

Lee, Caroline W., and Elizabeth Long Lingo. 2011. “The ‘Got Art?’ Paradox: Questioning the Value of Art in Collective Action.” Poetics 39(4): 316-335.

Lee, Caroline W. 2011. “The Politics of Localness: Scale-Bridging Ties and Legitimacy in Regional Resource Management Partnerships.” Society & Natural Resources 24(5): 439-454.

Lee, Caroline W. 2010. “The Roots of Astroturfing.” Contexts 9(1): 73-75.

Lee, Caroline W. 2009. “Conservation as a Territorial Ideology.” City & Community 8(3): 301-328.

Lee, Caroline W. 2007. “Is There a Place for Private Conversation in Public Dialogue? Comparing Stakeholder Assessments of Informal Communication in Collaborative Regional Planning.” American Journal of Sociology 113(1): 41-96.

Haydu, Jeff, and Caroline Lee. 2004. “Model Employers and Good Government in the Late 19th and Late 20th Centuries.” Sociological Forum 19(2): 177-202.


Lee, Caroline W. 2019. Review of “Freedom from Work: Embracing Financial Self-Help in the United States and Argentina” by Daniel Fridman, Cultural Sociology 13(2), 254-255.

Lee, Caroline W. 2019. Review of “Political Translation: How Social Movement Democracies Survive” by Nicole Doerr. Mobilization 24(1), 123-124.

Lee, Caroline W. 2015. Review of “How Social Movements Die: Repression and Demobilization of the Republic of New Africa” by Christian Davenport. Mobilization 20(4): 550-551.

Lee, Caroline W. 2014. Review of “Art Against Dictatorship: Making and Exporting Arpilleras under Pinochet” by Jacqueline Adams. American Journal of Sociology 120(2): 603-604.

Lee, Caroline W. 2012. Review of “Laotian Daughters: Working Toward Community, Belonging, and Environmental Justice” by Bindi V. Shah. Mobilization 17(4), 488-489.

Lee, Caroline W. 2011. Review of “Handbook of Social Movements Across Disciplines” by Bert Klandermans and Conny Roggeband (eds.). Social Movement Studies 10(4): 441-442.

Lee, Caroline W. 2009. Review of “Democracy as Problem Solving: Civic Capacity in Communities Across the Globe” by Xavier de Souza Briggs. Mobilization 14(3): 403-404.

Lee, Caroline W. 2007. Review of “Empowered Participation: Reinventing Urban Democracy” by Archon Fung. Journal of Politics 69(2): 592-593.

Lee, Caroline W. 2005. Review of “Mobilizing an Asian American Community” by Linda Trinh Võ. Journal of Urban Affairs 27(5): 559-560.

Other Publications

Lee, Caroline W. 2016. “Is Deliberative Democracy Stuck in a Moment?Trajectories 28(1), 32-35.

Lee, Caroline W. 2016. “The Upsizing of Public Deliberation has Downsized Citizen Expectations.” Democratic Audit UK, London School of Economics blog. January 15.

Lee, Caroline W. 2015. “Viewpoints: The Sharers’ Gently Used Clothes.” Contexts (Winter), 17-18.

Lee, Caroline W. 2015. “Don’t Let Participatory Democracy Stifle Debate.” The Philadelphia Inquirer, February 6.

Lee, Caroline W. 2012. “Comment on ‘Polite Culture: “Nice Nellyism” Suffuses Sociology.’” Contemporary Sociology 41: 699.

Lee, Caroline W. 2010. “Making Community Governance Work.” Directory, Alliance for Sustainable Communities, Lehigh Valley.

Lingo, Elizabeth Long, and Andrew Taylor, with Caroline Lee. 2008. “National Performing Arts Convention 2008: Assessing the Capacity of the Field for Collective Action: Report of the 2008 I-DOC Team.” Curb Center for Art, Enterprise, and Public Policy.

Lee, Caroline W. 2008. “Fare: Dixieland.” Saveur Magazine 112: 20.

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