Current TRL: 3 (9/22/21)

A prototype pack has been fabricated. Simulations have been run of the pack physics to handle necessary stresses.

Fabrication of prototype boards is completed and SPICE simulations or KiCAD simulations have been run as necessary.

Battery Packs and Accumulator Management System


Fully Assembled Pack

The TSV subsystem delivers high voltage power to the FSAE vehicle in order to power it. Each of the two packs in the vehicle supply about 54V through 16 LiFePO4 battery cells which are each monitored through the accumulator management system (AMS). The AMS consists of a pack manager (PacMan) and 16 cell manager (CellMan) system boards, one per cell. The two packs are wired in series to provide ~108 V to the assembled accumulator system. The subsystem interacts with other car subsystems via data acquisition through CANOpen and via the vehicle’s safety loop.

Battery Pack Wiring diagram

Wiring diagram editing

Safety Diagram

Literature Review

  • G. L. Plett, “High-performance battery-pack power estimation using a dynamic cell model,” in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 1586-1593, Sept. 2004, doi: 10.1109/TVT.2004.832408.
  • Kandler Smith, Chao-Yang Wang, Power and thermal characterization of a lithium-ion battery pack for hybrid-electric vehicles, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 160, Issue 1,2006, Pages 662-673, SSN 0378-7753,
  • Jianwei Li, Michael S. Mazzola, Accurate battery pack modeling for automotive applications, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 237,2013, Pages 215-228, ISSN 0378-7753,

Spring 2021 Subsystem Team Poster


Mechanical Test Plans


User Manual


Maintenance Manual


Full Pack BOM

Electrical: PDF

Mechanical: Complete Battery Parts List

Pack Errata

2021-2022 Team, Start Here! Updated 5/19/2021
MechE Battery Pack Errata

ECE Battery Pack Errata

Mechanical Documentation

Link to the Inventor Files in Google Drive: Updated 11/4/2021

Where the Mechanical State is as of October 4, 2021:

Pack Assembly Video

Refer here in the high level drawing section for full mechanical drawings and inventor files located in the CompleteAssembly/2019-2020Complete/TSV/FinalPackAssembly

AMS Board Documentation

PacMan CellMan
Schematic: 1.0 – PDF 2.2 – PDF
1.2 – PDF
1.3 – PDF
1.3 – PDF

Updated Naming

PCB Layout: 1.0 – PDF 2.2 – PDF
1.2 – PDF
1.3 – PDF
BOM: 1.0 – Excel 2.2 – PDF
1.2 – Excel 2.2 – CSV
1.3 – Excel
Firmware: GitHub GitHub
Render: 1.0 – PNG 2.2 – PNG
1.2 – PNG
1.3 – PNG
KiCad Project: GitHub GitHub


The firmware for the packs is written in Arduino to reduce the development time and learning curve for new developers. The latest code can always be found at the Lafayette-FSAE Github or by specifically going to the PacMan Firmware Repository.

The Getting Started and further documentation is located on the Github’s README file (which is presented to the visitor when accessing the repo). A copy of the code & binary file from: April 14th, 2020 can be found directly here: PacManFirmware-master

CellMan and PackMan Page

Block Diagram: 

Packman_Software _Block _Diagram

Test Plan:

Pacman Test PlanV2

Battery Pack TRL Chart

TRL What does this look like? Expected Completion Date
9 Packs have been used in a competition setting. Race Day
8 There is full integration with the car (pack securely attached to chassis, safe and neat wiring/cabling, CellMan-PacMan interface, PacMan-SCADA interface, TSV power). 4/22/22
7 There is full integration between CellMan and PacMan and electrical subsystems with SCADA via CANOpen bus along with cabling integration with TSV. 3/2/22
6 The frame has been subject to real stresses. CellMan and PacMan integration allows for communication using I2C and charging capabilities have been tested/verified. 12/15/21
5 The pack can be lifted without shifting the cells or any internal equipment. CellMan and PacMan boards can operate independently with measurement and display capabilities. 11/17/21
4 Assembled frame/walls can hold 16 cells, SMD, electronics, and are equipped with proper holes for wiring.

CellMan and PacMan boards can be programmed and operate independently.

3 A prototype pack has been fabricated. Simulations have been run of the pack physics to handle necessary stresses.

Fabrication of prototype boards is completed and SPICE simulations or KiCAD simulations have been run as necessary.

2 Inventor files and KiCAD files have been populated. Completed
1 Preliminary ideas for frame and pack geometry have been cemented, and the stresses the pack must withstand have been defined. Electrical subsystems have been designed (how many boards, hardware hierarchy, communications) as well as the functional contributions of each subsystem. Completed


Additional Electrical Documentation

  • Display Tutorial:  MP4
  • Display Design 1.6: PNG
  • Object Dictionary: XDD
  • I2C Documentation: PDF
  • Pre-built RaspberryPi Firmware w/ Arduino IDE & Firmware from 4/5/20: .7z File
  • Fuse Calculations: PDF