Nuclear Port Security

The goal of transportation systems in general is to facilitate the movement of people and goods from place to place quickly, safely, and inexpensively. However, because it is often not possible to meet all three of those goals simultaneously, transportation engineers are forced to choose some imperfect, but realistic, combination of those ideals. Securing our nation’s ports from potential nuclear threats is a prime example of a goal that forces transportation engineers, politicians, and others to choose between safety and efficiency.

Since the attacks of September 11th, national security has been an especially important issue in the United States. The federal government quickly took measures to decrease the chances of another major terrorist attack from occurring on US soil. While much attention is given to those measures that directly impact the public, such as airline security checks, other less obvious measures are equally important.

Nuclear Port Security is a major issue for many reasons, including the following:

1.)    Nuclear weapons can only be detonated in the US if they are created here or transported here. If we assume that creating or obtaining a nuclear device is easier outside of the US than within it, and that a missile or other military-style delivery system is beyond the technical capabilities of most terrorist groups (both somewhat questionable assumptions), they it appears that smuggling a nuclear weapon into the US is perhaps the easiest way to get such a device on US soil.

2.)    Nuclear “Dirty Bombs” provide a low-tech method for radiation dispersal, while highly-enriched Uranium weapons emit only low levels of radiation prior to detonation that are difficult to detect by many scanners.

3.)    Sea- and river-ports process huge amounts of cargo every day, increasing the chances that the “needle” may never be found in the “haystack.”

4.)    Air traffic is very closely monitored, making smuggling radioactive material by air a risky possibility.

5.)    Cargo ships are massive and carry goods from many different companies and points of origin to just as many places. This vast complexity and great scale make it difficult for all transported items to be fully checked and monitored.

6.)    Each shipping crate is capable of carrying large amounts of materials and can be unloaded from a ship directly to a truck without any form of visual or other inspection of its contents.

7.)    Ports are extremely important to the world market, and are often located in, or very close to, major cities. A nuclear detonation at a port could cause great loss of life as well as major monetary losses. According to the Washington Post, “Estimates of damage caused by a nuclear detonation at a major port range from tens of billions of dollars to $1 trillion.” The destruction of a major port would cause tremendous financial and cultural turmoil. Global trade would suffer, and many jobs would be lost. Suspicion or tension between countries would result in even greater consequences.

Clearly, the protection of its sea- and river- ports should be a major priority for the US. However, there are major obstacles to such security. Financial concerns, delays in shipments due to extended processing time, privacy and intellectual property concerns, and poorly organized oversight of the cargo monitoring process have all plagued attempts to institute an all-encompassing scanning methodology at US ports.

In 2007, Congress passed a law requiring that all cargo containers entering the US must be screened for radiation at foreign ports. In an effort to achieve this goal, the US has helped over twenty nations to install cargo scanning equipment in their ports, largely through the Megaports Initiative of the National Nuclear Security Administration. This initiative, begun in fiscal year 2003, seeks to expand this success to 100 seaports by 2015. Despite the success of this initiative, reported the Washington Post, the Department of Homeland Security failed to meet the July 2012 deadline for 100% foreign-based scanning set forth by Congress, instead “extending a two-year blanket exemption to foreign ports because the screening is proving too costly and cumbersome.” In a report to Congress, DHS secretary Janet Napolitano “said it would cost $16 billion to implement scanning measures at the nearly 700 ports worldwide that ship to the United States.” The current cargo scanning system used by the Customs and Border Protection agency uses intelligence-based analysis to target “high-risk” cargo for inspection.

Although much of the cargo imported into the US is not yet scanned in foreign ports, nearly all of it is scanned after it reached US ports. However, concerns have been raised regarding the effectiveness of the scanning equipment used for this application. In addition, a 2013 report by the DHS Office of Inspector General revealed poor coordination between Customs and Border Protection and the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office that has allegedly resulted in poor scanning and tracking methods.

When looking at an issue such as nuclear port security, it is often very difficult to see a clear solution. The many available courses of action each provide their own set of benefits and drawbacks, even when looking at only a small aspect of the problem. For example, looking at the issue of nuclear port security from an economic perspective provides little useful directives. On the one hand, according to the Washington Post, “estimates of damage caused by a nuclear detonation at a major port range from tens of billions of dollars to $1 trillion.” On the other hand is the reality of the current system exemplified by failed attempts to address the issue, as shown by a simple look at the news: “Pilot programs established to scan all containers [in foreign ports] were abandoned in 2009 after the agency said costs were too high and the effort led to cargo delays and logistical problems.”

Transportation engineers, politicians, businessmen, and the public must also weigh the daily logistical nightmare of in-port radiation scanning against the chances of the logistical hell of a nuclear detonation in-port.

Will things ever change? It’s unclear. The optimist will point to new scanning technology that will revolutionize the scanning process, while the pessimist will point to increased government bureaucracy that will only make the system more costly and inefficient. However, some things are certain: as long as nuclear threats exist, the issue of port security will be an important (and likely costly) one.

 

———————————————————————————————————————

 

http://nnsa.energy.gov/aboutus/ourprograms/nonproliferation/programoffices/internationalmaterialprotectionandcooperation/-5

http://www.gsnmagazine.com/article/28496/port_nuclear_detection_efforts_not_fully_coordinat

http://articles.washingtonpost.com/2012-07-15/world/35489894_1_port-security-port-vulnerability-cargo-containers

http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=5sSnxge6BGA

 

 

445 thoughts on “Nuclear Port Security

  1. Although sports betting is legal and allowed in many states, there are some risks. It is best to use money you can afford to lose when placing wagers on sports. There are other benefits of sports betting. Here are some. It’s never too late to place bets. You shouldn’t place bets that are too big or you could lose a lot of your money. For those who have almost any inquiries concerning where by and how you can make use of 먹튀커뮤니티, you possibly can email us from our own page.

  2. As it is known, IKEA adopts a professional presentation tactic with its items in the correct order and placed at the moment of entering the store until the exit. This is a strong reflection of the marketing technique.
    IKEA prioritizes the quality of the products it serves in its stores. Therefore, it adopts a strong cooperation with the right partners. Naturally, it supports product quality with long-term warranty options. The product description of each product is detailed. The person can easily obtain all the information about the product from the product description.

    Reference : https://bit.ly/3NkKvig

  3. The 85-acre Brooklyn Bridge Park revitalizes this formerly industrial shoreline. The park serves as a gateway between the city and the river, facilitating a wide range of activities and programs, many of which provide stunning views of the Manhattan skyline from its vantage point. The site’s rich history and outstanding constructed and natural characteristics ensure that this drastic change produces an urban attraction that will be active and entertaining for years to come, thanks to careful attention.

  4. The closest IKEA store to my house is IKEA Milton Keynes, but IKEA Greenwich and IKEA Birmingham, which are the other branches I like to visit, are places I can definitely recommend.

    IKEA’s wardrobes, beds, tables, shelves, chairs and armchairs have truly excellent designs and superior quality. I’ve never had any complaints about the quality or use of any product I’ve bought so far.

    Thanks to its huge area, which also offers a wonderful living space for families and especially children, you can both visit with your children and have a great lunch break after shopping.

    Reference : https://bit.ly/3wArtyI

  5. buy-instagram-followers-without-losing-them
    فالوور قبل از اينکه يک اصطلاح باشد، يک کلمه انگليسي است که کاربردهاي مختلفي در اين زبان دارد. اما از زمان پيدايش و ظهور شبکه هاي اجتماعي، کاربرد آن نيز به گونه اي افزايش پيدا کرد که برخي افراد که با زبان انگليسي آشنايي کافي ندارند، بر اين باورند که اين کلمه يا اصطلاح تنها متعلق به اينستاگرام يا ساير شبکه هاي اجتماعي مبتني بر فالوور است.معني کلمه فالوور چيست اين کلمه که در زبان انگليسي با املاي Follower نوشته مي شود، Noun يا اسم بوده و به معني دنبال کننده مي باشد. کلمه Follower مفرد و جمع آن Followers است.کاربرد اصطلاح فالوور در اينستاگرام چيست با توجه به اينکه دسترسي به ساير شبکه هاي اجتماعي پرکاربرد در سطح جهان براي کاربران ايراني محدود بوده و عموم جامعه تنها اينستاگرام را بعنوان يک شبکه اجتماعي مي شناسد، بسياري گمان مي کنند که اصطلاح يا کلمه فالوور فقط در اينستا کاربرد دارد. اکثر شبکه هاي اجتماعي امکاني را در پلتفرم خود در نظر گرفته اند تا کاربرانشان بتوانند با يکديگر در ارتباط باشند و به قول معروف از احوال يکديگر با خبر شوند. ما اين نوع از رسانه هاي اجتماعي را رسانه هاي مبتني بر فالوور يا فالوور محور مي ناميم. توئيتر، پيج هاي فيسبوک، اکانت هاي کمپاني در لينکدين، سوندکلود، پينترست و بسياري ديگر از پلتفرم هاي اجتماعي با کاربري متفاوت، دکمه اي را در پروفايل کاربران خود با عنوان Follow قرار داده اند. هدف از قرار دادن دکمه فالو اين است که باعث ايجاد پيوند بين پروفايل هاي فعال در اين شبکه هاي اجتماعي شود. در برخي از پلتفرم هاي اجتماعي خرید فالوور بدون ریزش مانند لينکدين، فالو کردن ها يکطرفه است و تنها محدود به پروفايل هاي کمپاني. در لينکدين بجاي استفاده از دکمه Follow از دکمه Connect استفاده شده که از نظر ماهيت کاربردي، Connect همان Follow در اينستا يا توئيتر بحساب مي آيد. در اينستاگرام زماني که پروفايل يک شخص را مشاهده مي کنيم با چند اصطلاح از جمله Followers برخورد مي کنيم. اگر از طريق اپليکيشن اينستا پروفايل شخصي را مشاهده کنيد، عددي زير عبارت Followers و اگر از طريق وب سايت اين شبکه اجتماعي اقدام به بازديد از پروفايل ايشان کنيد، عددي مقابل اين عبارت مشاهده مي کنيد.عدد فالوور چيست حتما براي شما اين سوال که عدد فالوور چيست و بيانگر چه الماني از صفحه اينستاگرام يک کاربر مي باشد، در ذهنتان ايجاد مي شود. عددي که مقابل يا زير کلمه Followers مشاهده مي کنيد، بيانگر تعداد دنبال کنندگان يک اکانت اينستا مي باشد. هر چه اين عدد بالا تر باشد، نشان از محبوبيت آن پيج نزد مخاطبينش دارد. اين عدد، خود نيز داراي نمادهايي است که مي تواند سوال برانگيز باشد. براي مثال K در تعداد فالوور چيست و M چه معنايي دارد!K در عدد تعداد فالوور چيست بعيد است تا کنون با پيج هايي که مقابل عدد فالوور هاي آنها حرف K مشاهده مي شود، برخورد نکرده باشيد. خوب K در عدد تعداد فالوور چيست ؟ اين عدد زماني توسط اپليکيشن و سايت اينستا نمايش داده مي شود که تعداد دنبال کنندگان يک پيج بيش از 9.999 و کمتر از 1 ميليون باشد.
    buy-instagram-followers-without-losing-them

  6. Bu sitelerin 3kaçak olmalarının nedeni ülkemizde lisans alamamalıdır bunun dışında ülkemizdeki yasal sitelerden her zaman daha güvenli ve sağlam bir alt yapıya sahiptirler. En çok kazandıran bahis siteleri listesini takip ettiğinizde Vbettr adresini görebilirsiniz. Vbet sitesi içerisinde en yüksek oranları sunan, en çok bonus veren oyun siteleri hakkında bilgiler ve linkler yer almaktadır.

    Web Sitesi : https://vbetime.com/

Leave a Reply to escaperoom Cancel reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *